LIFE+ PROGRAMME

DIRECTIVES

RETE NATURA 2000

 Life+ is a new European Union financial instrument which entered into force in 2007 for the protection of the environment. It co-finances actions for the environment in Member States and in some other countries along the Mediterranean and Baltic seas, as well as Eastern and Central European candidate countries. It follows the former LIFE programme set up in 1992.

The general objective of LIFE+ is to contribute to the implementation, updating and development of Community environmental policy and legislation including the integration of the environment into other policies, thus contributing to sustainable development.

In particular LIFE+ supports the implementation of the 6th EAP laid down by decision n.1600/2002/EC and finances measures and projects with European added value in Member States.

Where possible, projects financed by LIFE+ promote synergies between different priorities in the 6th EAP and integration.

Moreover, in order to ensure European added value and avoid financing recurring activities, projects must satisfy at least one of the following criteria:

a)  projects regarding best practice or demonstration aimed at implementing Directives 79/409/EEC or 92/43/EEC;

b)  Innovative or demonstration projects relating to Community environmental objectives, including the development or dissemination of best practice techniques, know-how or technologies;

c)  projects for awareness-raising campaigns and special training for agents involved in forest fire prevention initiatives;

d)  projects for the development and implementation of Community objectives relating to the broad-based, harmonised, comprehensive and long-term monitoring of forests and environmental interactions.

 

LIFE+ has three components:

1.     LIFE+Nature and Biodiversity;

2.     LIFE+ Environment Policy and Governance:

3.     LIFE+ Information and Communication.

 

LIFE+Nature and Biodiversity, which the project “Protection of amphibians, reptiles and bats of the SCI Montecalvo- Piana di Montenero” comes under, has the following specific objectives:

a)  Contribute to the implementation of EU policy and legislation in matters of nature and biodiversity, in particular the Directive concerning the conservation of wild birds (Directive 79/400/EEC “Birds) and that relating to the conservation of natural and semi-natural habitats, of wild flora and fauna (Directive 92/43/CEE “Habitat”) and in particular to contribute to the constitution of the “Natura 2000” European network of protected areas aimed at the  in-situ management and conservation of species of flora and fauna and habitat types important in the European Union, including coastal and marine habitats and species.

 

DIRETTIVA 79/409/CEE UCCELLI

The Habitats Directive has created for the first time a framework for the conservation of nature in all EU Member States.

In reality, however, is not the first EU Directive which deals with this matter. In 1979 the European Union adopted a directive important, the so-called "Birds" Directive (79/409/EEC) on the conservation of wild birds. It provides on the one hand a series of actions for the conservation of many species of birds listed in the Annexes of the Directive itself, and on the other the identification by the Member States of the areas to be allocated to their conservation, the so-called Special Protection Areas (SPAs), laying the foundation for the creation of a leading European network of protected areas, in this case specifically designed for the protection of endangered species of birds and their habitats.

 

DIRETTIVA 92/43/CEE HABITAT

Nel 1992, nell'ambito della conferenza mondiale di Rio de Janeiro su ambiente e sviluppo, l'Unione Europea ha adottato la direttiva CEE 92/34, cosiddetta "Habitat", che rappresenta lo strumento principale e più caratterizzante per la salvaguardia della natura europea, tramite un approccio all'uso del territorio in una logica di sviluppo sostenibile per il mantenimento vitale degli ecosistemi.

 

Scopo della Direttiva è quello di contribuire a salvaguardare la biodiversità mediante la conservazione degli habitat naturali e seminaturali, della flora e della fauna selvatiche nel territorio comunitario, tenuto conto delle esigenze economiche, sociali e culturali locali.

Per habitat di interesse comunitario (elencati nell'allegato I della Direttiva) si intendono quegli habitat che rischiano di scomparire o che costituiscono esempi notevoli delle caratteristiche tipiche di una o più delle cinque zone biogeografiche europee: alpina, atlantica, continentale, mediterranea e macaronesica.

Per quest'ultima si intendono le isole atlantiche delle Azzorre, Canarie e Madeira. Le specie di importanza comunitaria (elencate negli allegati II, III e IV della Direttiva) vengono suddivise in base alla loro consistenza numerica o al livello di minaccia, e quindi la suddivisione risulta articolata come segue: 1. specie in pericolo, 2. specie rare, 3. specie endemiche

 

Le specie prioritarie sono le specie in pericolo per la cui conservazione l'Unione Europea ha una particolare responsabilità.

Sulla base di tale Direttiva gli Stati membri dell'Unione Europea hanno identificato i Siti di Importanza Comunitaria (SIC), intesi come aree che aiutano a mantenere o a ripristinare un tipo di habitat o una specie della flora e della fauna selvatiche in uno stato di conservazione soddisfacente contribuendo così al mantenimento della biodiversità.

 

L'Italia ha individuato un elenco di circa 2.800 SIC, attualmente al vaglio di apposite commissioni a livello europeo. Quando l'Unione Europea avrà approvato la lista dei SIC, gli Stati membri avranno l'obbligo di designarli Zone Speciali di Conservazione (ZSC).

Natura 2000 is the name of a "network" of areas designated for the protection of biodiversity in the territory of countries outside the European Union through the maintenance or restoration of natural habitats of Community interest.

 

It aims at the protection of a range of habitats and animal and plant species listed in the EU Directive " Habitat " and a number of areas to be allocated to the conservation of wild birds identified by the EU Directive "Birds" , taking into account the specific economic needs , social and cultural rights of the various Member States. It is, in other words , the " biological reservoir " of the European Union , which will ensure the maintenance or, where appropriate , restoration of a favorable conservation status of the natural habitat types and species present in our continent.

 

Natura 2000 is the main instrument of EU policy for the conservation of biodiversity. It is an ecological network spread throughout the territory of the Union , as established under Directive 92/43/EEC " Habitat " to ensure the long-term maintenance of natural habitats and species of flora and fauna threatened or rare level Community .

 

The Natura 2000 network consists of the Sites of Community Interest (SCI) , identified by the Member States in accordance with the provisions of the Habitats Directive , which are then designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs ) , and also includes Special Protection Areas (SPAs) established pursuant to Directive 2009/147/EC "Birds" on the conservation of wild birds.

 

The areas that make up the Natura 2000 network are not strictly protected reserves where human activities are excluded , the Habitats Directive aims to ensure the protection of nature while also taking " account of economic , social and cultural requirements and regional and local characteristics " (Art . 2 ) . Private entities can be owners of Natura 2000 sites , ensuring sustainable management from the point of view of ecological and economic.

 

The Directive recognizes the value of all those areas in which the age-old human presence and its traditional activities has allowed the maintenance of a balance between human activities and nature. Agricultural areas , for example, are linked to many plant and animal species are now rare and endangered the survival of which is necessary for the continuation and enhancement of traditional activities , such as grazing or non-intensive agriculture . At the same title of the Directive specifies the goal is not only to preserve the natural habitats but also those habitats (such as areas of traditional agriculture , the woods used , pastures , etc. . ) .

 

Another innovative element is the recognition of the importance of certain elements of the landscape that play a role in connection to the flora and fauna ( Art. 10). Member States are encouraged to maintain or develop these necessary elements to improve the ecological coherence of the Natura 2000 network.